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Computer Generations : Know Simple


Computer is the most powerful tool man has ever created. It has made great impact on our day to day life.
Computers what we see today has gone through many evolution stages. The milestones in computer evolution are:
  • First Generation(1951-1959)
  • Second Generation(1959-1965)
  • Third Generation(1965-1971)
  • Fourth Generation(1971-Present)
  • Fifth Generation (Future)

Generation in computer talk is a step in technology. It provides a frame work for the growth of computer industry. Each new generation has made the following changes in computer characteristics:
  1. Incerase in speed.
  2. Increase in storage capacity.
  3. Increase in reliability.
  4. Reduction in system cost.

First Generation(1951-1959)
  • CPU components as-vacuum tube
  • Memory storage-punch card, magnetic tapes
  • Language used-assembly language
  • Example-IBM 701,EDVAC,UNIVAC

 Advantages
  • Vacuum tubes were the only electronic components available during those days.
  • Vacuum tube technology made possible the advent of electronic digital computer.
  • These computer were the fastest calculating device of their time.

Disadvantages
  • Too bulky in size
  • Limited commercial use
  • Unreliable
  • Commercial production was difficult and costly.
  • Non-portable
  • Air Conditioning required
  • Prone to frequent hardware failures.


Second Generation(1959-1965)
  • CPU Components as-Transistors
  • Memory storage-magnetic disk, Magnetic tape
  • Language used-High level language (FORTRAN,BASIC)
  • Example- IBM 1400 series & 7000 series

Advantages
  • More reliable
  • Smaller in size as compared to first generation computer
  • Wider commercial use
  • Less heat generated
  • Better portability
Disadvantages
  • Air conditioning required
  • Commercial production was difficult and costly
  • Frequent maintenance required
  • Manual assembly of individual components into a functioning unit was required


Third Generation(1965-1971)
  • CPU components as- Integrated Circuits
  • Memory storage-Punched card, magnetic tape
  • Language used-High level language (FORTON,COBOL)
  • Example-IBM System/ 360
 Advantages
  • Smaller in size as compared to previous generation computers.
  • Commercial production was easier & cheaper.
  • More reliable than second generation computers.
  • They were able to reduced computational times from microseconds to nano seconds.
  • Easily portable.
  • Less power requirements.
Disadvantages
  • Air conditioning required in many cases
  • Highly technology required for manufacturing IC Chips


Forth Generation(1971-PRESENT)
  • CPU components as – LSI (large scale integration) ,VLSI
  • Memory storage – Magnetic storage
  • Language used – C++ ,C ,JAVA etc…
  • Examples – IBM System / 370 ,Burroughs & HP3000
 Advantages
  • Smallest in size because of high component density
  • Very reliable
  • Heat generated is negligible
  • No Air conditioning required in most cases
  • Much faster in computation than previous generation
Disadvantages
  • Highly technology required for manufacturing LSI Chip


Fifth Generation Computers(future)
  • They are still in their evolution stage.
  • They will use ULSI chips.
  • Key technology will be artificial intelligence and knowledge information.
  • It will have the ability to interact to the human in natural language.
  • Have ability to reason logically and behave like an expert.
Advantages
  • Artificial intelligence.
  • Knowledge based system implementation.
  • Auto decision.
  • Non procedural programming language.

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Martin Meeky said...

A complete knowledge about all the generation computers. It's Marvelous. I am really very happy to read all the information at one place. Used LCD

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